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Tracks & Sign of Insects and Other Invertebrates
Field Guide updates, additions, corrections. Ongoing...
( taxa covered )
1. Eggs and Egg Cases
2. Pupae and Exuviae

3. Parasitism, Predation, and Other Causes of Death

4. Sign on Vertebrates

5. Droppings, Secretions, and Protective Coverings without Foreign Materials

6. Webs and Other Silken Constructions

7. Cocoons

8. Coverings, Cases, Retreats, and Nests Made from Foreign Materials

9. Sign on Algae, Fungi, and Plants

10. Leaf Mines

11. Leaf Shelters

12. Galls

13. Sign on Twigs, Stems, and Stemlike Structures

14. Sign on and in Wood

15. Sign on Rocks and Shells

16. Burrows and Mounds

17. Molelike Excavations and Simple Surface Trails

18. Tracks and Trails

p. 151 The Andrena species that left this colorful deposit has been identified as A. crataegi. Click here to see the bee.
p. 151 The syrphid larva that left this tarlike smear has been identified as an Epistrophe species. Click here to see it.
p. 154 Correction: Although Drosophila sigmoides still appears to be a valid name, it evidently no longer applies to a spittlebug fly. The fruit flies associated with spittlebug spittle belong to the genus Cladochaeta, and you can download a 326-page monograph devoted to them here.
p. 156 Correction: The caterpillars that made these droppings were Haploa contigua, not H. confusa.
p. 158 Correction: Question marks (Polygonia interrogationis) do NOT construct frass chains. Thanks to Keith Wolfe for bringing this to our attention.
p. 172 Correction: The pine bark adelgid is native to North America, not introduced.
p. 173 Gregory A. Evans has examined the nymphal exuviae from the pictured whiteflies on arrowwood, and has determined them to be Trialeurodes pergandei.
p. 176 Correction: Although it's hard to see any detail in this photo, mycologist Larry Millman recognized these black spots as the anamorphic phase of a Lophodermium fungus. Here is what actual pinyon needle scale nymphs would look like when magnified.

Images ©Charley Eiseman/Noah Charney